Silberra S-23 B&W Film Developer
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Silberra S-23 B&W Film Developer

Code: S23
  • Film processing
Price: $4,50
Out of stock


Silberra S-23 is a single-solution contrast alkali-free metol films developer. Provides wide gamma of halftones and good detail of light areas, can be used as equalizing and contrast developer (depending on the solution) and helps to equalize image contrast.

Chemical Composition

Metol, sodium sulfite anhydrous, disodium edetate

Preparing Working Solution

Working solution is prepared by pouring the contents of the packs into water while continuously stirring the solution (use glass stick or special plastic stirring stick for chemicals). Distilled or filtered water is strongly recommended.
The method of preparation is as follows:
1) Warm 750 ml of distilled water up to 35-37 Celcium degrees (use mix of hot and cold water, or use microwave to warm up the water).
2) Pour contents of pack #1 into the water while stirring until the powder is completely dissolved.
3) Pour contents of pack #2 into the water while stirring until the powder is completely dissolved.
Do not begin mixing the contents of pack two until pack one is completely dissolved. If any lumps of powder form in your solution, they can be broken down with your stirring stick. As soon as the working solution is ready (powders are totally dissolved), add cold water to make up to 1 litre and stir.
Allow the solution to cool to room temperature, nominally 20-22 C. At this point the developer is ready to use. Filtering the solution is not obligatory but recommended option.

Development Times

Silberra S-23 Developer can vary greatly final sharpness and contrast of photographs by changing proportions of dilution of the working solution. Working solution with proportions 1:2 can be called the second working solution, and many photographers prefer this concentration of the Developer. Development times for different films with working solution 1:1 are indicated in Table 1, for working solution 1:2 - in Table 2.

Development Times Table #1 (1 :1 working solution)

DeveloperFilmISOTime, minutesTemperature
S-23Adox CHM 125100620C
S-23Adox CHM 400400820C
S-23Arista EDU Ultra 1001001120C
S-23Arista EDU Ultra 1002001520C
S-23Arista II 1001001120C
S-23Arista Premium 400400820C
S-23Fomapan 1001001120C
S-23Fomapan 200200720C
S-23Fuji Neopan 100 Acros100920C
S-23Ilford Delta 100 Pro100720C
S-23Ilford Delta 400 Pro400720C
S-23Ilford FP4+100620C
S-23Ilford HP5+400820C
S-23Ilford Pan F+50720C
S-23Ilford Pan 400400920C
S-23Kodak Plus-X125720C
S-23Kodak TMax P320032001120C
S-23Kodak TMax 1001001020C
S-23Kodak TMax 400400820C
S-23Kodak Tri-X 400400820C
S-23Rollei Retro 1001001120C

Development Times Table #2 (1 :2 working solution).

Delta 100 Pro (ISO 100) – 21 minutes
FP4+ (ISO 100) – 22 minutes
Pan F+ (ISO 50) – 18 minutes
TMax 100 [100TMX] (ISO 100) – 22 minutes
APX – 100 (ISO 100) – 23 minutes
APX – 400 (ISO 400) – 24 minutes
Neopan 100 Acros (ISO 100) – 24 minutes
Fomapan100 (ISO 100) – 23 minutes

Usage Limits

1 litre of Silberra S-23 Developer working solution can be used to process up to 7 films of 135/36 type.

Side Effects

Silberra S-23 Developer is not suitable for push processing due to its chemical properties.


Keep Silberra S-23 Developer in cool, dry and dark place. Keep away from the children. It is optimal to store your working solution in opaque, chemically inert and tightly sealed containers with minimal air space in order to reduce oxidation.

Expiry Date / Shelf Life

Silberra S-23 sealed powder packs can be stored up to 12 months past the production date. S-23 Developer working solution can be stored for 6 months past the production date (in a tightly sealed bottle). Developer that was partly used can be stored in a closed bottle up to 45 days. Please note: the exhausted working solution can not be stored.

Disposal Regulations

Silberra developers and fixers must be disposed of in accordance with the rules and regulations of the country they are used in. Concentrated developers could be toxic and may harm the environment unless disposed in appropriate manner. Silberra recommends to use special disposal services provided by correspondingly licensed organizations which are eligible for photographic chemistry recycling/disposal.